In the context of research design, two types of validity, which speak to the quality of different features of the research process, are considered: internal validity and external validity. Assuming that the findings of a research study are internally valid—i.e., the researcher has used controls to determine that the outcome is indeed due to manipulation of the independent variable or the treatment—external validity refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population or to other settings and groups. Reliability refers to the replicability of the findings.
For this Discussion, you will consider threats to internal and external validity in quantitative research and the strategies used to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical implications of designing quantitative research.
1- an explanation of a threat to internal validity and a threat to external validity in quantitative research. Next, explain a strategy to mitigate each of these threats.
2-Then, identify a potential ethical issue in quantitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions.
3- Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach.
Babbie, E. (2017) Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., Crawford, L. M., & Hitchcock, J. H. (Eds.). (2020). Research designs and methods: An applied guide for the scholar-practitioner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.