Book ; McKay, John, et al. A History of World Societies. Vol. 1 To 1600. 10th edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2015.
This is the link to the How to Answer Questions Documents is a book that discusses a number of answering techniques and provides general rules for answering those questions. In it, your will find the General Writing Deduction list. This list contains twenty of the most commonly missed grammar errors in social science writing.
The following mistakes will result in a deduction of one point. However, I should point out that any repeated grammar errors not on this list will also result in a one point deduction. It is important to refer to your grammar book, A Writer’s Reference, to remind yourself of the basic rules for good grammar.
1. Making any reference to yourself in history/social science writing is not acceptable. This means I, me, we, my, you, one, our, and us are not allowed in the vast majority of assignments. I will allow it on rare occasion. On those occasions, I place a note about it at the end of the question in parenthesis. If there is no note, then do not refer to yourself.
2. Do not use contractions.
3. When writing dates, make sure they are plural and not possessive. Rarely, dates may need to be possessive. The use of the years is not correct in this sentence: “The band Poison became famous in the 1980’s.” This date is possessive. As you are referring to ten years in the 1980s, it should be plural. It should say, “The band Poison became famous in the 1980s.”
4. Word documents are set with an extra space between paragraphs as a default setting. You must eliminate it in the essays you submit in the class. Under “Paragraphs” in Word, click the section that says “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.” This will eliminate the problem. Spacing must be uniform. You might need to set the before and after spacing to zero as well. If you have questions, please watch the video at this link:
5. You must indent five spaces at the beginning of each paragraph in your essays.
6. Please remember that you must meet the minimum number of sentences in each paragraph mentioned earlier in this Moodle Book. (It is four.)
7. Please remember that you must meet the minimum number of paragraphs in each essay mentioned earlier in this Moodle Book. (It is five.)
8. Do not use “in this essay” and “in conclusion” in the introduction and conclusion paragraphs of your essay. This also includes statements such as “this essay will prove/show.”
9. Do not begin consecutive sentences with the same word or phrase. For example, do not begin sentences with the word “the” three times in a row. Vary your wording and sentence structure.
10. Do not end and begin sentences with the same word. If this is necessary, you need to make the sentence compound by arranging it differently.
11. Avoid beginning sentences with numbers. Only use numbers when you can spell it out with two or three words. If it is more complex, arrange the sentence differently.
12. Do not begin a sentence with the word “so” in academic writing. It is a dead term and lessens the effectiveness of your writing. For example, avoid “So, the statistics show the gap.” I would suggest using this pattern, “The statistics show the gap.”
13. When wanting to use an abbreviation, spell the word out completely and then place the abbreviation in parenthesis behind it. “I have never visited the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.).” After doing that, you can use the abbreviations as needed. You do not need to do this with the United States of America. The abbreviations U.S.A. and U.S. are rather common. However, nearly everything else will need it.
14. When you introduce a person the first time, give the name and formal title. Afterwards, you can use the last name only. “General Winfield Scott developed the Anaconda Plan. While not feasible in the beginning of the war, Scott was proven to have developed the strategy that caused the North to win the Civil War.” The only time you would change this after the initial introduction is when someone else has the same name. You would only use first names again when their names are used in close proximity. For example, “Dr. Derek Clements is my teacher. Mr. Larry Clements is his father. Dr. Clements was an enlisted man in the Arkansas National Guard. His father was as officer in the U.S. Army. Dr. Clements now teaches at Black River Technical College. While in college at Arkansas State University, Clements majored in history.” Do you see why this section needs clarification? As Dr. Derek Clements was the last one mentioned, when you used Clements after his reference it implied you were discussing Dr. Clements.
15. Periods and commas go inside the quotation marks 99.9% of the time. Do not put them outside the quotation marks. Please see the rules for quotation marks and punctuation in your grammar book.
16. Be aware of the common capitalization errors using north, south, east, and west. When referring to a specific place, it is capitalized. “The Civil War most fought in the South.” “The North won the Civil War.” When meaning a direction, you do not capitalize it. “We drove south from Little Rock.” “He lives north of Jonesboro.”
17. When using the words such as northerner, southerner, northern, or southern, you capitalized it when referring to a specific people or activity (political, social, or cultural). Do not capitalize it when you are a general location or geography. “For the most part, eastern Arkansas is flat.” “The Southern people tended to vote Democrat prior to the Civil War.” “The Northerners won the Civil War.”
18. You must put a comma after the year when writing a full date in a sentence. “On January 11, 2016, classes start.” Most people forget this comma. When writing a full date, do not place “th” after the day. The following sentence is not correct. “On January 11th, 2016, classes start.” The next sentence is correct. “On January 11, 2016, classes start.”
19. Remember to italicize court cases. Also, place the date of the ruling after the case in parenthesis. “The Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) case was critical in the buildup to the Civil War.”
20. Remember to italicize book and magazine titles.
Theme in history
1: Demography: Patterns of Population and Change
As humans populated the earth, how have patterns of population developed? What causes these patterns? What causes these patterns to change?
2: Economics: Trade, Commerce, Technology, and Globalization
How have societies developed economic systems that provide the basic goods and services to provide a stable life for its members? How are these goods and services distributed? How do these societies develop and maintain trade with other groups? What conflicts have emerged in this process? How have improved transportation and communication methods created a globalized economy?
3: Government: Structures, Power, and Authority
Why did humans develop a government system? What are the diverse types of government systems? What is the structure of power and authority in these systems? What conflicts have emerged in these systems? How have revolutions changed these systems? What is the role of the citizen in the various systems?
4: Class: Stratification, Mobility, and Reform
As societies develop, how do groups of people relate? How are the groups ranging from families to countries organized? What causes social stratification within societies? What factors provide or prevent social mobility? What are examples of reform movements within these groups?
5: Race: Identity, Diversity, Expression, and Oppression
What does race mean? How have racial identities developed? How has racial identity provided opportunities and/or hindrances in a society? Has diversity been viewed as a positive in societies being discussed, or has it been met with oppression within these societies?
6: Science: Discovery, Technology, and the Environment
What is the level of technological expertise within the studied society? How have scientific and technological discoveries changed that society? Has this impact been positive or negative? Has human interaction with the environment been positive or negative?
7: Religion: Spiritual Life and Moral Codes
Why did humans develop religion? What are the diverse types of religious systems? What is the structure of power and authority in these systems? What conflicts have emerged between differing opinions on religion? How have physical, political, social, or philosophical changes influenced these systems? How have these systems influenced the political, educational, and commercial structures within the societies studied?
8: War: Military, Social, and Economic Change
What impact has war had on the society being studied? How does the society maintain its military system? What are the social, economic, and political impacts of war? How has war caused military, social, and economic change?
9: Environment/Geography: Patterns, Impact, and Change
What impact has the geography/the environment had on human life? What patterns exist? How have humans changed their environment? How do environments change the humans that have lived there? How are trade and commerce influenced by the environment?
10: Health: Education, Disease, Patterns, Technology, and Change
What role has education, technology and changing attitudes toward health played in the expansion or collapse of human groups? How have disease and human patterns such as settlement, travel, or trade played in the expansion or retraction of the human population. How has medical technology changed over time? How has this influenced the groups being studied?
11: Culture: Development, Expression, Oppression, Interaction, and Change
What role has cultural expression played in the shaping of history? How have distinct cultures developed? How have these cultures been expressed and/or oppressed? How do they interact with other cultures? How have these cultures changed over time?
12: Gender: Identity, Diversity, Expression, and Oppression
What does gender identity mean? How have gender identities developed in the various societies being discussed? How has gender identity provided opportunities and/or hindrances in a society? Has the expression of gender identity/diversity been viewed as a positive in societies being discussed, or has it been met with oppression within these societies?