Reading: Dwyer and McPhee, 35-42.
Olwen Hufton, “Women and Politics” in Women and the Limits of Citizenship in the
French Revolution (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 3-18.
Gary Kates, “Jews into Frenchmen: Nationality and Representation in Revolutionary France,” Social Research 56, no. 1 (1989): 213-32.
Carolyn E. Fick, “The Haitian Revolution and the Limits of Freedom: Defining Citizenship in the Revolutionary Era,” Social History 32, no. 4 (2007): 394-414.
Answer 3-4 of the following the questions in no fewer than 1000 words (not including the questions themselves). Be sure to defend your ideas with specific evidence from the text. Be sure to address all readings (at least one of the primary sources and each of the secondary sources) and to pull details from various parts of the texts. You must make direct references to the texts by including authors and page numbers (e.g.: Kates, 24), and where appropriate, short quotations. Quotations should not comprise more than 5% of your responses. Discussion questions must be typed and they must be uploaded to the link on Canvas before the class period when they are discussed. The questions will be graded on a scale of 1 to 10, based upon effort and insight (AKA there is not necessarily one correct answer for any given question). The goal is to read the materials closely, to answer the question completely, and to provide your own insight.
Although you are only required to write about 3 or 4 questions, all questions will be addressed in class, so be prepared to discuss them all.
1. Judging from the Hufton reading, why were women not granted the same rights as men in the early stage of the French Revolution? What role did they play in the revolution despite not being granted equal political rights?
2. What arguments did the petition from the Jews of Alsace use to make their case for full citizenship? Judging from these readings, who opposed the active citizenship of Jews, and why? Who supported it, and why? Why were Jews ultimately granted full citizenship?
3. What significance did Arthur Hertzberg give to Jewish emancipation? How was his argument influenced by scholars before him? What problems does Kates identify within Hertzberg’s thesis?
4. Judging from the primary sources, what arguments were presented in favor of/against the emancipation of slaves in French colonies? Why do you think the National Assembly decided to table the discussion of slavery?
5. Judging by the Fick article, under what circumstances were slaves in Haiti finally emancipated? By the end of the Haitian Revolution, to what degree had the lives of ordinary Haitian laborers improved?
6. Describe the limits of free black (that is, former slaves’) citizenship under the systems instituted by Sonthonax, Polverel, and Louverture. To what degree were their policies driven by republican ideology? To what degree were they influenced by economic considerations?
7. Judging from these readings, to what degree did the French revolutionaries achieve the goal of equality in the early stages of the French Revolution (1789-1793)? What seems to have been the biggest concerns that prevented full equality?